CBD (cannabidiol) is an ingredient naturally sourced from hemp plants that are bred for nutritional purposes. The CBD is primarily extracted from hemp paste, made from the leaves and flowers of the hemp plant, with hemp seeds as a secondary source
- 1940 | Roger Adams isolated CBD from marijuana, but failed to describe it properly
Cannabidiol comes from the Cannabis sativa plant, along with possibly a hundred other cannabinoids. In 1940, Harvard alumni Roger Adams was working as an organic chemist at the University of Illinois, and he had decided to invest some of his research into the chemistry of cannabis. At the time, the plant was even more mysterious and enigmatic than it was today. It was known for getting people high, but why? Adams managed to successfully isolate the CBD compound from the plant, but he didn’t actually describe its chemical makeup. As a result, Adams sadly is not often credited for his discovery, even though he was technically first to achieve this feat.
- 1946 | Dr. Walter S. Loewe conducted the first cannabinoid tests on animals
Even to date, it is rare for cannabinoid tests to be done on humans; more often, they are conducted on animal models like mice and rats. More and more human trials are taking place, but back in 1946, the first ever tests were done on rabbits and mice. Dr. Walter Loewe carried out trials of CBD, THC, and CBN on the rodents. He found that THC caused catalepsy, referring to an induced trance, in the mice, while CBD did not produce any noticeable behavioural effects. Furthermore, THC triggered a “central excitant action” in the rabbits, while CBD did not. These studies showed that THC was what provoked the psychoactive effects of marijuana, suggesting for the first time that CBD was not an intoxicant. However, it’s important to remember that the chemical structures of these cannabinoids had not been identified yet, so Dr. Loewe could not fully conclude these results.
- 1964 | Professor Raphael Mechoulam isolated CBD and actually described its chemical structure
Israeli scientist Dr. Raphael Mechoulam, working from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, successfully isolated CBD once again, after the incident with Dr. Adams. However, Dr. Mechoulam successfully identified CBD’s stereochemistry and assigned it a chemical structure for the first time, which is why he is often given credit for this discovery. Mechoulam was also the man who was able to isolate and describe the structure of THC, meaning he is an extremely influential individual in the modern cannabis industry. To this day, he has published over 350 research papers with cannabis as his topic of focus. Without him, there is very little chance that the CBD industry would be so huge nowadays.
- Late 1960s | Mechoulam and his colleagues began testing cannabinoids on primates
Rodents as animal models are not always ideal, as the results of studies do not often translate well with humans. Primates, however, are much more closely related to us, which is why Dr. Mechoulam and his lab chose them for testing their newly isolated cannabinoids. Once again, it was found that THC caused intoxicating effects whereas CBD had no psychoactive properties – but this time, the scientists were able to describe precisely which one did which.
- Mid 1970s | British Pharmacopoeia released the first cannabis tincture
Cannabis has been used as a medicinal herb for centuries by ancient societies. And yet it was made illegal, all because it produced a psychoactive high. When it was discovered that CBD did not cause a high, intrigue regarding its potential medicinal benefits began to grow. British Pharmacopoeia, a renowned publication of quality standards for medicinal substances, released the first licensed cannabis tincture. This was probably a full-spectrum CBD oil, and was the first of its kind in terms of licensing and acceptance.
- 1980 | Dr. Mechoulam partnered with South American researchers, publishing study on cannabis and epilepsy
Along with a team of researchers from the Sao Paulo Medicine Faculty of Santa Casa in Brazil, Dr. Raphael Mechoulam carried out a study regarding the effects of CBD on 16 clinical subjects that had severe epilepsy. This is believed to be one of the first double-blind trials using CBD. Most of the subjects were children suffering from severe forms of the condition. The results concluded that all the individuals in the study experienced an improvement in their symptoms, along with little to no side effects. This was a huge, groundbreaking moment in CBD’s history.
However, the results of the study went sadly unnoticed. The negative stigma surrounding cannabis was absolutely enormous during this decade, with degrading stereotypes about lazy stoners and hippies who used cannabis during the Free Love movement of the 60s and 70s. Mechoulam himself has said, “Who cared about our findings? No one! And that’s despite many of the epilepsy patients being kids who have 20, 30, 40 seizures a day. And what did they do? Nothing!” Sadly, this mirrors the situation nowadays, even though things are beginning to move.
- 2000s | Some countries began to decriminalise cannabis
In 2001, tiny Luxembourg decriminalised cannabis. They were followed by Portugal, who decriminalised all drugs in a somewhat extreme policy that has surprisingly improved the social situation there. Also in 2001, Canada legalised medical cannabis as the medical benefits came to be more widely recognised. In 2003, Belgium decriminalised the plant, and more and more countries began to follow suit; some decriminalised the plant, while others went a step further and legalised it for medicial usage.
- 2001 | The Misuse of Drugs Regulations was passed
Here in the UK, the Misuse of Drugs Regulations passed in 2001, which brought new laws on cannabis. This permitted cannabis cultivation (usually of hemp) under a special license which could be obtained from the Home Office. As more and more research was being conducted into cannabis, this law also allowed for the smoking of cannabis for research purposes.
- 2010 | First cannabis-based medicine became licensed in the UK
Nabiximols, better known by its trade name Sativex, was licensed for use in the UK in 2010. The drug contains CBD and THC and is prescribed to treat spasticity of muscles related to Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Of course, it is only prescribed under special circumstances (i.e. when patients are unresponsive to other medication) and is not all that widely available, but the government licensing a medication derived from cannabis – let alone containing psychoactive THC – was an enormous leap.
- 2017 | World Health Organisation confirms that CBD is safe
In a meeting by the WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence (ECDD), it was concluded through a number of tests and trials that CBD is safe and well-tolerated in humans. They also said that it doesn’t have the potential for abuse and has few side effects; those of which do exist are minor. However, the WHO were sure to make clear that they weren’t recommending CBD for medicinal use, stating that more research was required in this field.
- 2018 | Cannabis history is made in Great Britain and all over the world
2018 has been a shocking year for cannabis and CBD. Research trials are taking place pretty much continuously, and acceptance for medicinal cannabis is growing and growing. This comes on the back of news stories like that of Billy Caldwell, a young Irish boy who suffered from severe epilepsy and was helped by medical cannabis oils from Canada. As people saw that cannabis-based medications helped a suffering little boy, they couldn’t help but change their minds about it.
Speaking of Canada, liberal Prime Minister Justin Trudeau took the plunge this year and legalised recreational cannabis for the whole country. His aim is to reduce usage among young people and promote the safe usage as cannabis, as criminalisation hasn’t exactly prevented its use.
While the UK is far from legalising recreational marijuana, Home Secretary Sajid Javid did take note of cases like Billy Caldwell’s. Condemning outdated laws, he called for a review on cannabis, which resulted in the legalisation of marijuana-based medications for usage in the NHS. Now, kids like Billy will be able to gain access to a sort of medical marijuana programme to help them lead a much better life.
CBD can be extracted from both hemp and marijuana plants. The major difference between these plants is the amount of CBD and THC in each. The difference between CBD and THC is multifaceted, but most people are interested in whether hemp CBD oil can cause psychoactive effects.
The short answer is no, CBD oil from industrial hemp has 0.3% or less THC in it, which isn’t enough to give you that “high” feeling. Marijuana CBD oil doesn’t have that restriction and can contain more, possibly causing unwanted effects. This is why the majority of CBD products, including all products sold by Haze Organics, are hemp-based.
CBD and THC, the two most popular and well-known cannabinoids, are far from the only ones in the cannabis plant.
Full Spectrum CBD oil keeps all of those cannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, and nutrients working together to create a balanced option for your wellness. CBD isolate takes the opposite tactic, focusing on the purest form of CBD available (presented in a crystal or powder), which can then be made into a tincture or added to food.
Because of the beneficial properties found in the additional cannabinoids, terpenes, and other components found in full spectrum CBD, it’s the preferred choice by many. Many believe that all the components of a plant working together is much more powerful than isolated components on their own. This is often referred to as “the entourage effect.”
There are several great ways to use CBD. Depending on how quickly you’d like to experience effects, price, and your personal taste, you might want to try different methods to see what works best for you.
Pure CBD Oil
CBD oil is extracted directly from hemp plants. This method often carries a bigger price tag because it tends to have the highest levels of CBD. Full-spectrum CBD hemp oil contains other cannabinoids and nutrients, and it can be added to food, drinks, or consumed orally.
Benefits of pure CBD Oil
- CBD oil is taken sublingually (i.e., held under the tongue for a minute before swallowing the remaining liquid) and absorbs into the bloodstream fairly quickly.
- The potent nature of CBD oil means that you don’t need a lot for desired effects.
- Some CBD oils are specially engineered for vaping, although you should be careful not to inhale anything that isn’t made expressly for that purpose.
CBD Oil Tinctures
Although taken the same way as CBD oils, CBD tinctures are a specialized oil mixed with carrying agents like alcohols or flavored oils (Fruit and mint are common). They take a liquid form and usually come with a dropper, although some are sprays or packaged in pump bottles.
Benefits of CBD Tinctures
- CBD tinctures are quick to absorb into the bloodstream when taken sublingually.
- These CBD products are often flavored, which can make them more palatable for the hemp-averse.
- Tinctures tend to be a very affordable option for both beginners and experienced CBD users.
From lotions to lip balm, CBD topicals are anything that you apply directly onto your skin. Usually in a cream or wax form, these are great options for localized results, since they’ll be interacting with your skin versus absorbing into your bloodstream.
Benefits of CBD Topicals
- CBD topicals tend to be very affordable since they have a lighter density of CBD in them.
- The method of consumption means that CBD topicals are incredibly easy to use.
- The effects of CBD topicals can last for hours, so it’s easy to include them in your routine.
- CBD topicals are discreet, since using topicals in everyday life is very common.
CBD capsules and pills are exactly what they sound like. A powdered form of CBD inside a capsule is swallowed and absorbed through digestion. They have no taste and typically last longer than other methods.
Benefits of CBD Pills
- CBD pills and capsules have a set amount of CBD in them, so you don’t have to measure it out yourself.
- It’s very easy to use CBD pills, especially since most people have swallowed similar vitamins, supplements, or medication.
- Because CBD pills are absorbed when digested, they tend to have particularly long-lasting effects.
Although often associated with THC, edibles are a great way to consume CBD. CBD edibles are any food item with added CBD, from candies to pastries. CBD gummies and other edibles are absorbed through the stomach during digestion.
Benefits of CBD Edibles
- This is the biggest selling point of CBD edibles: They taste delicious. No matter your craving, you can probably find a flavor to match.
- The method of absorption means that CBD edibles tend to last a long time.
- CBD edibles are perhaps the easiest method of CBD consumption.
CBD has been touted for a wide variety of health issues, but the strongest scientific evidence is for its effectiveness in treating some of the cruelest childhood epilepsy syndromes, such as Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), which typically don’t respond to antiseizure medications. In numerous studies, CBD was able to reduce the number of seizures, and in some cases it was able to stop them altogether. Videos of the effects of CBD on these children and their seizures are readily available on the Internet for viewing, and they are quite striking. Recently the FDA approved the first ever cannabis-derived medicine for these conditions, Epidiolex, which contains CBD.
CBD is commonly used to address anxiety, and for patients who suffer through the misery of insomnia, studies suggest that CBD may help with both falling asleep and staying asleep.
CBD may offer an option for treating different types of chronic pain. A study from the European Journal of Pain showed, using an animal model, CBD applied on the skin could help lower pain and inflammation due to arthritis. Another study demonstrated the mechanism by which CBD inhibits inflammatory and neuropathic pain, two of the most difficult types of chronic pain to treat. More study in humans is needed in this area to substantiate the claims of CBD proponents about pain control.
taken from health.harvard.edu
Some CBD manufacturers have come under government scrutiny for wild, indefensible claims, such that CBD is a cure-all for cancer, which it is not. We need more research but CBD may be prove to be an option for managing anxiety, insomnia, and chronic pain. Without sufficient high-quality evidence in human studies we can’t pinpoint effective doses, and because CBD is currently is mostly available as an unregulated supplement, it’s difficult to know exactly what you are getting. If you decide to try CBD, talk with your doctor — if for no other reason than to make sure it won’t affect other medications you are taking.
there is currently “a great deal of confusion around CBD oil UK law”, with the vast majority of cannabinoids listed as controlled substances under the Misuse of Drugs Act.
However, CBD is an exception and is completely legal in the UK, “provided it has been derived from an industrial hemp strain that is EU-approved”
For CBD oil to be legal in the UK, it must contain no more than 0.2% THC, and the THC must not be easily separated from it
Although the use of CBD is controversial, it does seem to be well tolerated in most people. It has however caused hypotension and light-headedness in a very small number of patients. As it does not contain the THC part of the cannabis plant, the oil will not induce a ‘high’.
CBD oil should not be used by pregnant or breastfeeding women.